Wednesday, October 6, 2021

Study linking measles vaccine to autism long has been discredited, but it helps drive an anti-vaccine movement that can prove deadly in the age of COVID

Dr. Andrew Wakefield

America's anti-vaccination movement likely has its roots in the notion that the measles vaccine can cause autism -- and that myth grew from a long-debunked study, by a long-discredited scientist. But a significant chunk of Americans apparently still believe in the myth, and it causes them to resist COVID-19 vaccines that can be life-saving. From a report at Salon, under the headline "Millions of Americans view being anti-vaccination as a part of their social identity":

Pre-pandemic, the modern incarnation of the general anti-vaccination movement was spurred by a 1998 paper from the medical journal The Lancet which linked autism to the measles vaccine. That paper was later thoroughly discredited by scientists, denounced by The Lancet and retracted by 10 of its 12 co-authors. Its lead author, Andrew Wakefield, lost his medical license in the United Kingdom for ethical violations. Despite this, many parents would read pseudoscientific literature inspired by Wakefield's paper and conclude that it was dangerous to vaccinate their children.

That does not sound like a study worth following. But it has managed to worm itself into the fabric of American -- and in the shadow of COVID, such a myth can be deadly. How does this happen? Salon's Matthew Rozsa explains:

In a new paper published for the journal Politics, Groups, and Identities, researchers found that 22 percent of Americans actively identify themselves as anti-vaccination, with 14 percent saying they are "sometimes" part of the movement and 8 percent saying this is "always" the case. 

These self-described anti-vaxxers "embrace" the label of anti-vaxxer "as a form of social identity," the authors write.

"We also find that people who score highly on our [anti-vaxx social identification] measure tend to be less trusting of scientific experts and more individualistic," they noted. 

The study is a stark reminder that vaccine-hostile attitudes are not a fringe view, but are possessed by a substantial portion of the U.S . population, many of whom have come to consider the label a formative part of their identity. As daily COVID-19 vaccination rates have begun to decline, the cohort of self-identified anti-vaccination Americans are contributing to the delayed march towards herd immunity in the United States.

This can have a profound impact on public health -- and it comes with deeply planted roots in partisan politics:

Indeed, widespread refusal to get vaccinated is a major reason why experts doubt the number of Americans who vaccinate themselves from the deadly disease will reach 70 percent, the rough number needed to reach herd immunity. Currently, slightly more than 47 percent of Americans are vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2.

Texas A&M University School of Public Health assistant professor Timothy Callaghan said in a university press release that "the fact that 22 percent of Americans at least sometimes identify as anti-vaxxers was much higher than expected and demonstrates the scope of the challenge in vaccinating the population against COVID-19 and other vaccine-preventable diseases."

Callaghan's concern reflects a growing challenge for public health experts, who have now to contend with the myriad ways in which basic public health advice has become politicized. Indeed, a March 2021 study, which revealed the extent to which partisan politics have influenced attitudes towards vaccination, found that Republican men were the most likely to be COVID-19 anti-vaxxers (49 percent) — followed by Republican-identifying women (34 percent), Democratic women (14 percent) and Democratic men (6 percent). The same study revealed that 40 percent of white non-college educated men and 38 percent of white evangelicals — groups that both lean conservative — said they would refuse a coronavirus vaccine if it was offered to them.

It should be no surprise that the anti-vaxx movement tends to run hand in hand with support for Donald Trump: 

Another recent study also found that anti-vaccine ideas are most popular among Republicans. Despite the prevalence of anti-vaxxer views, researchers at the nonprofit Center for Countering Digital Hate (CCDH) found that up to 65% of anti-vaccine misinformation on major social media platforms are being spread by one of a mere dozen individuals and organizations, meaning that misinformation is concentrated in its dissemination.

All of this has some academics shaking their heads, especially considering that Andrew Wakefield's study regarding the measles vaccine and autism has little, if any, basis in fact:

In April, Dr. Kasisomayajula Viswanath, a professor of health communication at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, spoke with Salon's Nicole Karlis about the complex nature of the anti-vaccine movement. Viswanath pointed out that there are many reasons why someone might distrust vaccines, not all of which are linked to partisan politics. Patients from underprivileged backgrounds, for instance, might have previously experienced racism in our health care system and feel an understandable wariness.

"That's very different from a group of people who are outright refusers who say, 'No, this is my freedom,'" Viswanath said. "Personal liberty is one of the biggest drivers."


Anonymous said...

Some interesting history here, LS, that I was not aware of. Thanks for posting.

legalschnauzer said...

@9:55 -- You're welcome, and thanks for reading. This was new information to me, too. I'd heard about an alleged link between a vaccine and autism, but did not know the specifics -- and did not know the study and the scientist have largely been discredited.

Anonymous said...

I feel for parents who freak out over concerns about a possible vaccine-autism link.

legalschnauzer said...

I do, too, @10:12. Kids only get one crack at life, and if you hear stories that a vaccine might harm them, it's reasonable to resist something that you think might slow your child's development. I suspect stories about the possible autism link have spread more rapidly than stories about the science behind the link being sketchy.

legalschnauzer said...

Here is a society-page side note to this post. Looks like Dr. Wakefield and supermodel Elle McPheron have been an item, although they might have hit splitsville. Here is headline from Daily Mail:

Has Elle Macpherson split from her disgraced anti-vaxxer boyfriend? Model refuses to deny break-up with Andrew Wakefield after they weren't seen together since October

legalschnauzer said...

Here is more from Daily Mail re: MacPherson and Wakefield:

Elle Macpherson has been dating disgraced former doctor Andrew Wakefield since late 2017.

But rumours are swirling things could be all over for the couple, who haven't been seen together since they attended an anti-vaccine event in North Carolina in October - where Wakefield introduced Macpherson to the audience as 'my girlfriend'.

Macpherson's representative refused to deny the break-up on Monday when contacted for comment by Sydney's Daily Telegraph, stating: 'I'm not aware of anything. Elle is a very private person.'

Macpherson, 56, recently returned from a retreat in Arizona, where she had gone to 'heal and realign herself'.

She cryptically wrote on Instagram: ' No looking back… Arizona has always been a place of healing for me.

'A time to reset, rediscover, repose, realign with my authentic truth and values – I'm so deeply grateful for Mother Nature and all her beauty and her healing power.'

Daily Mail Australia has contacted Macpherson's representative for further comment.

Macpherson has been spending time in Florida with her two sons, Arpad Flynn, 23, and Aurelius Cy, 18, in recent months.

Meanwhile, Wakefield is believed to live in Texas, nearly 2,000km away.

legalschnauzer said...

Maxwell apparently turned MacPherson into an anti-vaxxer, from PageSix:

Elle Macpherson promoting anti-vax campaign during pandemic

Maybe she’s spent too much time in the sun?

Supermodel Elle Macpherson has taken a break from shilling her many beauty wares and frolicking in skimpy bikinis on the beach to promote an anti-vaccination campaign led by her boyfriend, disgraced former doctor, Andrew Wakefield.

Saying the pandemic is a “divine time” to promote the dangerous message, Macpherson took to the stage before an audience in North Carolina to help boost an anti-vaccination propaganda video — just as Pfizer and other pharmaceutical companies announced a new breakthrough vaccine for COVID-19.

The Aussie model took the stage with Wakefield, a former doctor who was banned from practicing after he presented bogus research claiming the measles vaccine leads to autism, to help present the latest installment in his anti-vax propaganda.

According to footage of the event obtained by the Daily Mail, after Macpherson was introduced by Wakefield, who called her his girlfriend, she turned to him and said: “You made this film during COVID, and it’s interesting because it’s such beautiful, sacred timing when you watch the film, because it’s so pertinent and so relevant. … And for it to come in this divine time where vaccination and mandatory vaccination is on everybody’s lips.”